WELCOME !Hoehnke is small European city state nestled between the former Yugoslavian states of Slovenia and Croatia at the head of the Gulf of Trieste on the Adriatic Sea. With a population of 3,834 (2009 official census figure), the name Hoehnke refers both to the capital and the Crown Principality from which it takes it’s name.
HistoryHoehnke was established as a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire in 1849 until 1918 when as part of the Treaty of Versailles it regained its independence once more following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and neighbouring Trieste's annexation to Italy. Trieste had strategic importance as Austria-Hungary's primary sea port and the coast of the Littoral was a resort destination, while Hoehnke remained isolated with its much smaller port and largely inaccessible from the landward side ensuring a degree of autonomy remained even during the period of occupation.
The territory of what would become modern Hoehnke had gradually been conquered by the Republic of Venice (Domini di Terraferma) until the early 15th century. In the east, the Habsburg archdukes of Austria, based on the March of Carniola they held from 1335, had gained suzerainty over Istrian Pazin in 1374 and the port of Trieste in 1382. They also purchased Duino and Rijeka (Fiume) on the northern Adriatic coast in 1474, and inherited the Friulian lands of the extinct Counts of Görz, which included Hoehnke in 1500.
The Habsburgs however did little initially to consolidate or develop their holdings in the Littoral. The supremacy of La Serenissima in the Adriatic and the attention to the threat posed by an expanding Ottoman Empire gave the Austrian archdukes little opportunity to enlarge their coastal possessions. Incorporated into the Austrian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, Görz, Trieste, Hoehnke and the remainder of Istria remained separately administered and retained their autonomy until into the 18th century.
Emperor Charles VI increased sea power of the Habsburg Monarchy by making peace with the Ottomans and declaring free shipping in the Adriatic. In 1719, Trieste and Hoehnke were made free ports. In 1730, administration of the Littoral was unified under the Intendancy in Trieste. However, in 1775, Emperor Joseph II divided the administration of the two main ports, assigning Trieste as the port for the Austrian "hereditary lands" and Hoehnke for the Kingdom of Hungary.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Habsburg Monarchy gained Venetian lands in the Istrian Peninsula including Hoehnke as part of the Treaty of Campo Formio of 1797. However, these territories and all of the new Austrian Empire's Adriatic lands were soon lost to the French Empire's puppet state, the Kingdom of Italy by the Treaty of Pressburg of 1805. The 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn then transferred Hoehnke to the Illyrian Provinces which were directly ruled by France.
With Napoleon's defeats, the Austrian Empire regained the region and, in 1813, all of the Littoral including Trieste, Istria, Hoehnke and Fiume became one administrative unit. From 1816, the Littoral including Hoehnke was a part of the Austrian Empire's Kingdom of Illyria.
In 1849, the Kingdom of Illyria was dissolved and Hoehnke once again became a separate crown land, acheiving full independance again under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1919, following the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. During the Second World War Hoehnke was one of the operational zones of German forces after the capitulation of Italy in September 1943 until the end of the war. After the conclusion of the war most of the surrounding territory become Yugoslavia, while the city of Trieste went to Italy and Hoehnke remained neutral, all be it entirely surrounded by Yugoslav territory with the exception of its short section of coastline, but with no territorial waters of its own. Following the break-up of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Hoehnke's period of isolation finally came to an end.
HRH Crown Princess Birgit
Hoehnke's Position in the WorldAn extract from a late 19th Century map of the northern Adriatic, showing, the then much larger and contiguous, territory of the Crown Principality in yellow, to the south of Trieste, then within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The facade of the Royal Palace of Hoehnke
Recommended Sights in Hoehnke : the summer palaceThe Royal Summer Palace at Harklend has been the second home to the Hoehnke Royal Family since being inaugurated under the auspices of Princess Victoria VI in 1792. Seeking more spacious accommodation than that provided by the Vlaslaval Palace in the centre of the old town on Palace Square , Harklend afforded its residents almost two square kilometres of painstakingly laid out parkland and manicured gardens with the 14 bedroom cream coloured mansion at its heart, the highlight. During the years in which Hoehnke was a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire the palace played host to many visitors from the Imperial Royal Family, but since independence was re-established, it is, except for the two summer months that the Crown Princess is in residence, a tranquil setting which welcomes visitors no matter what their ancestry.
Harklend, the palace and its grounds, are open to the public Wednesday to Saturday inclusive, except during the months of December, June & July. Further details on application or from the tourist office.
Built between 1856 and 1860 from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian, the palace gardens provide a setting of outstanding beauty with a variety of trees, chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a remarkable collection. Features of particular attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for lotus flowers and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the remains of the "Novara", the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef, set sail to become Emperor of Mexico.
For further information, contact the Ministry of Information, Hoehnke: email@example.com